COMMON RAIL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PDF



Common Rail Fuel Injection System Pdf

What is Common Rail? Farinia Group. latest fuel injection systems. emissions standards and also new system functionality, such as pre-injection. CRI (Common Rail injectors for passenger cars) and CRIN (Common Rail injectors for commercial vehicles) Bosch boosting diesel popularity. on the diesel service market. State-of-the-art diesel systems from Bosch, featuring, Jan 25, 2016В В· The fuel achieves its high pressure by being pressed into the injector by a plunger connected to the camshaft. One downside to this type of injector system is that the camshaft wears easily because of the increased stress of having to control fuel injection. Common Rail: 2009+ From 2009 through the present day, VW TDIs have been common rail cars..

What is the differnce between conventional diesel

What is the differnce between conventional diesel. It presents to you the common rail direct injection advantages, and teaches you the basics of common rail troubleshooting and diagnostics. Learn more with this online training module, and become a diesel injection expert. Timing of injection and conditions for starting the engine; Developments in European emission standards and diesel fuel, (to leakage detection system) Next rail unit Control quantity Non-return valve Cut-off quantity Injection valve Break leakages D AI l Rail unit MAN Diesel & Turbo Common Rail – Design & Field Experience 7 Fig.3 shows the hydraulic layout of the patented heavy fuel oil CR injec-tion system for the MAN 32/44CR engine. From the fuel system, the.

(to leakage detection system) Next rail unit Control quantity Non-return valve Cut-off quantity Injection valve Break leakages D AI l Rail unit MAN Diesel & Turbo Common Rail – Design & Field Experience 7 Fig.3 shows the hydraulic layout of the patented heavy fuel oil CR injec-tion system for the MAN 32/44CR engine. From the fuel system, the As shown in Fig. 1.2, the high-pressure fuel system for direct injection gasoline engines comprises a high-pressure pump driven directly by one of the camshafts, which supplies the pressurised fuel to a common rail mounted in the cylinder head, and high-pressure electronic fuel injectors.

Nov 27, 2019 · Common rail diesel engines are the modern version of diesel engines. Most of the diesel-powered vehicles you see today will have common rail technology in it. If you’re unfamiliar with common rail, it is a term that defines the fuel injection system used for these engines. Common rail uses a high-pressure rail to deliver fuel to each solenoid ‘Common Rail Direct Injection’ is a type of advanced technology used in engine fuel systems. The term ‘CRDi’ is most commonly referred to diesel engines. In Common Rail Direct Injection, commencement of combustion takes place directly into the main combustion chamber located in …

2 REDUCING POLLUTING EMISSIONS. 1-21. 2. 1 COMBUSTION. 1-21. 2. 2 STANDARDS. 1-31. 2. 3 POLLUTANTS. 1-41. 3 REDUCING FUEL CONSUMPTION. 1-51. 4 INCREASING PERFORMANCE. 1-6I OBJECTIVESTABLE OF CONTENTSii DDGX200(EN) - Issue 1 of 09/2007© Delphi2. SYSTEM MAKE-UP2. 1 DESCRIPTION. 2-72. 2 COMMON RAIL HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT. 2-93. HP PUMP3. 1 TRANSFER PUMP. 3 … Injection pressure is calculated by an experimental equation which is developed for heavy duty diesel engines with common rail fuel injection system. Power upgrade for 1000 and 2000 bar injection

injection systems, the common rail system provides a flexibility of operation that enables in jection flow, timing advance, rate of introduction and injection pressure to be accurately adjusted to engine requirements for all operating conditions. Type of injection Timing Amount injected Number of injections DPC Mechanically set Mechanically set 1 Engine and fuel injector system designs for both petrol and diesel fuels continue to evolve to improve efficiency and performance.-Petrol engines are increasingly moving to direct injection designs.-Modern diesel engines are effectively all direct injection, with light duty almost all high pressure common rail, and heavy duty following rapidly.-

It presents to you the common rail direct injection advantages, and teaches you the basics of common rail troubleshooting and diagnostics. Learn more with this online training module, and become a diesel injection expert. Timing of injection and conditions for starting the engine; Developments in European emission standards and diesel fuel Heavy Duty XPI Fuel System. The Cummins HD XPI System is a common rail system that provides the highest injection pressure of any other common rail system. Primarily targeted for mid-range and heavy-duty applications, the XPI system is the result of Cummins market leading technology.

High-Pressure Common-Rail Fuel Injection System is the most common technique of fuel injection used in diesel engine of automobiles. High-Pressure Common-Rail Fuel Injection System refers to a new method of fuel supply which can entirely separate the parison between the computed and the measured fuel injection parameters, showed good agreement. 2. Mathematical Model of the Common Rail Injector Fuel-Injection System Nowadays the highly efficient Diesel engines for passenger cars are usually equipped with the Common Rail accumulator fuel-injection system (Figure 1), which enables high

Common Rail Systems by Liebherr

Common rail fuel injection system pdf

Common Rail Diesel Performance Problems MOTOR. Nov 27, 2019 · Common rail diesel engines are the modern version of diesel engines. Most of the diesel-powered vehicles you see today will have common rail technology in it. If you’re unfamiliar with common rail, it is a term that defines the fuel injection system used for these engines. Common rail uses a high-pressure rail to deliver fuel to each solenoid, A common rail is one of the most important components in a diesel and gasoline direct injection system. The main difference between a direct and a standard injection is the delivery of fuel and the way how this one mixes with incoming air. In the direct injection system, the fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber, skipping the waiting period in the air intake manifold..

Diesel Common Rail and Advanced Fuel Injection Systems. ries common-rail systems, Bosch offers modular and scalable so-lutions for the injection system in order to further reduce the emissions, fuel consumption, and combustion noise of diesel en-gines. By using piezo injectors, Bosch increases the system pres-sure of common-rail systems to …, Mar 17, 2011 · For engines equipped with common rail injection technology, the injection pressure is generated independently of the load and engine speed. Function of the common rail fuel injection system.

Common Rail Direct Injection What is CRDi Technology

Common rail fuel injection system pdf

Online Training Common Rail Fuel System Prodiags. Jan 25, 2016В В· The fuel achieves its high pressure by being pressed into the injector by a plunger connected to the camshaft. One downside to this type of injector system is that the camshaft wears easily because of the increased stress of having to control fuel injection. Common Rail: 2009+ From 2009 through the present day, VW TDIs have been common rail cars. injection systems, the common rail system provides a flexibility of operation that enables in jection flow, timing advance, rate of introduction and injection pressure to be accurately adjusted to engine requirements for all operating conditions. Type of injection Timing Amount injected Number of injections DPC Mechanically set Mechanically set 1.

Common rail fuel injection system pdf


Common rail is a fuel injection system found in modern diesel engines. Common rail systems provide a level of flexibility which can be exploited for class leading emission control, power and fuel consumption. This enables Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to design for optimum performance and exceptional end-user value across a range of Common rail is a fuel injection system found in modern diesel engines. Common rail systems provide a level of flexibility which can be exploited for class leading emission control, power and fuel consumption. This enables Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to design for optimum performance and exceptional end-user value across a range of

Apr 12, 2017 · What is a common rail diesel injection system? Everything from the CP3 to the injectors themselves, Wade lets you know in this video what each part does for … Common Rail Systems by Liebherr 11 Comprehensive controls on incoming material In the incoming goods department, all purchased parts of the Common Rail fuel injection system are checked for their high - est quality with the aid of highly modern measurement instru - ments. These include, for example, 3D coordinate measuring

Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for diesel engines.. It features a high-pressure (over 2,000 bar or 200 MPa or 29,000 psi) fuel rail feeding solenoid valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors (or pump nozzles).Third-generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for increased precision, with fuel pressures up Nov 27, 2019 · Common rail diesel engines are the modern version of diesel engines. Most of the diesel-powered vehicles you see today will have common rail technology in it. If you’re unfamiliar with common rail, it is a term that defines the fuel injection system used for these engines. Common rail uses a high-pressure rail to deliver fuel to each solenoid

Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for diesel engines.. It features a high-pressure (over 2,000 bar or 200 MPa or 29,000 psi) fuel rail feeding solenoid valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors (or pump nozzles).Third-generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for increased precision, with fuel pressures up Apr 23, 2018 · In the common rail system, the fuel pump charges the fuel rail at a pressure of up to 25,000 psi. But unlike indirect injection pumps, it is not involved in fuel discharge. Under the control of the onboard computer, this fuel quantity and pressure accumulates …

ries common-rail systems, Bosch offers modular and scalable so-lutions for the injection system in order to further reduce the emissions, fuel consumption, and combustion noise of diesel en-gines. By using piezo injectors, Bosch increases the system pres-sure of common-rail systems to … Common rail diesel (CRD) systems operate in a world of extremes, with almost unimaginable capabilities. For example, during its service life, a typical fuel injector on a commercial vehicle will open and close more than a billion times, and the pressure in the fuel injection chamber can be …

Bosch consistently further develops diesel drive systems, including components for fuel injection (diesel common-rail system) and fuel supply as well as the engine and air control, turbocharging, exhaust-gas treatment, glow system, brake system and engine lubrication. ries common-rail systems, Bosch offers modular and scalable so-lutions for the injection system in order to further reduce the emissions, fuel consumption, and combustion noise of diesel en-gines. By using piezo injectors, Bosch increases the system pres-sure of common-rail systems to …

Zhengzhou Liseron Oil pump & Nozzle Co.,Ltd is best Bosch denso delphi CAT common rail Injector, Bosch denso delphi CAT common rail Valve and Bosch denso delphi CAT common rail Nozzle , denso delphi CAT bosch injector repair kit , fuel system injector repair tool ,we has good quality products & service from China.China factory direct supply . SERVICE MANUALDiesel Injection PumpCOMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS)OPERATIONSeptember, 200700400534ESERVICE MANUALВ© 2007 DENSO CORPORATIONAll Rights Reserved. This book may

Simulation on Pressure Control of Common Rail Line in High

Common rail fuel injection system pdf

Common rail Wikipedia. Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for diesel engines.. It features a high-pressure (over 2,000 bar or 200 MPa or 29,000 psi) fuel rail feeding solenoid valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors (or pump nozzles).Third-generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for increased precision, with fuel pressures up, ries common-rail systems, Bosch offers modular and scalable so-lutions for the injection system in order to further reduce the emissions, fuel consumption, and combustion noise of diesel en-gines. By using piezo injectors, Bosch increases the system pres-sure of common-rail systems to ….

(PDF) CI Diesel Engine Fuel Injection System

Common Rail Systems Bosch Common Rail Systems. ‘Common Rail Direct Injection’ is a type of advanced technology used in engine fuel systems. The term ‘CRDi’ is most commonly referred to diesel engines. In Common Rail Direct Injection, commencement of combustion takes place directly into the main combustion chamber located in …, HEUI [2] under various common rail pressures when the ECU gives a 2ms control pulse. It can be seen that the injection quantity and injection rate increase with the increase of the common rail pressure. What it is truly important, however, is the repeatability of the injection. Injection, injection pattern and fuel charge are not equal.

Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Roger Busch 4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System"Euro 5" - Einspritzsystem Ösophisticated closed loop fuel metering control Öinnovative, delivery controlled high pressure pump platform ‘Common Rail Direct Injection’ is a type of advanced technology used in engine fuel systems. The term ‘CRDi’ is most commonly referred to diesel engines. In Common Rail Direct Injection, commencement of combustion takes place directly into the main combustion chamber located in …

A five hole nozzle with an orifice diameter 0.113mm was used, and fuel was injected into the atmosphere at rail pressure 40 and 70MPa using a common rail injection system. Common-rail injection system. A fuel supply system in which two or more high-pressure pumps supply a common manifold or rail. Timing valves determine the timing …

While other diesel injection systems generate the fuel pressure for each injection separately, the Common Rail System separates pressure generation and injection from one another. The fuel is constantly available at the pressure required for injection. The Common Rail System is modular in design. Sep 28, 2016В В· Common rail diesel uses a single fuel rail to supply fuel to the electronically controlled injectors under extremely high pressure. The engine computer controls fuel injection duration and timing to allow for higher efficiency and power. All param...

In most other parts of the world, however, diesel engines have made considerable strides due in part to the common rail fuel injection system. Significant fuel economy, reduced exhaust emissions, invincible low-speed torque, and all-around good drivability are a few of the benefits associated with common rail technology, which are covered in Nov 27, 2019 · Common rail diesel engines are the modern version of diesel engines. Most of the diesel-powered vehicles you see today will have common rail technology in it. If you’re unfamiliar with common rail, it is a term that defines the fuel injection system used for these engines. Common rail uses a high-pressure rail to deliver fuel to each solenoid

The Common Rail Sub functions ECU and sensors The sensor are responsible for measuring important physical quantities. The ECU calculates injected fuel quantity, start of injection, duration of injection, and rate of discharge curve, as well supervises the correct functioning of the injection system as a whole. COMMON RAIL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM SERVICE MANUALDiesel Injection PumpCOMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS)OPERATIONSeptember, 200700400534ESERVICE MANUALВ© 2007 DENSO CORPORATIONAll Rights Reserved. This book may

Jan 25, 2016 · The fuel achieves its high pressure by being pressed into the injector by a plunger connected to the camshaft. One downside to this type of injector system is that the camshaft wears easily because of the increased stress of having to control fuel injection. Common Rail: 2009+ From 2009 through the present day, VW TDIs have been common rail cars. (to leakage detection system) Next rail unit Control quantity Non-return valve Cut-off quantity Injection valve Break leakages D AI l Rail unit MAN Diesel & Turbo Common Rail – Design & Field Experience 7 Fig.3 shows the hydraulic layout of the patented heavy fuel oil CR injec-tion system for the MAN 32/44CR engine. From the fuel system, the

A common rail is one of the most important components in a diesel and gasoline direct injection system. The main difference between a direct and a standard injection is the delivery of fuel and the way how this one mixes with incoming air. In the direct injection system, the fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber, skipping the waiting period in the air intake manifold. SERVICE MANUALDiesel Injection PumpCOMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS)OPERATIONSeptember, 200700400534ESERVICE MANUALВ© 2007 DENSO CORPORATIONAll Rights Reserved. This book may

Zhengzhou Liseron Oil pump & Nozzle Co.,Ltd is best Bosch denso delphi CAT common rail Injector, Bosch denso delphi CAT common rail Valve and Bosch denso delphi CAT common rail Nozzle , denso delphi CAT bosch injector repair kit , fuel system injector repair tool ,we has good quality products & service from China.China factory direct supply . Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. On diesel engines, it features a high-pressure (2,000 BAR – 29,000 PSI) fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors or pump nozzles.

(to leakage detection system) Next rail unit Control quantity Non-return valve Cut-off quantity Injection valve Break leakages D AI l Rail unit MAN Diesel & Turbo Common Rail – Design & Field Experience 7 Fig.3 shows the hydraulic layout of the patented heavy fuel oil CR injec-tion system for the MAN 32/44CR engine. From the fuel system, the Fuel delivery system Certain mechanical fuel injection systems also utilize a mechanical fuel pump, typically some early gasoline fuel injection systems. Many of them use a fuel pump essentially identical to the carbureted fuel system's. Some, however, use a vane type fuel pump mounted directly to the injection pump/fuel distributor assembly.

Common rail injection: advanced technology for diesel engines. Bosch launched the first common rail system in 1997. The system is named after the shared high-pressure reservoir (common rail) that supplies all the cylinders with fuel. With conventional diesel injection systems, the fuel pressure has to be generated individually for each injection. SERVICE MANUALDiesel Injection PumpCOMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS)OPERATIONSeptember, 200700400534ESERVICE MANUALВ© 2007 DENSO CORPORATIONAll Rights Reserved. This book may

Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. On diesel engines, it features a high-pressure (2,000 BAR – 29,000 PSI) fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors or pump nozzles. Apr 23, 2018 · In the common rail system, the fuel pump charges the fuel rail at a pressure of up to 25,000 psi. But unlike indirect injection pumps, it is not involved in fuel discharge. Under the control of the onboard computer, this fuel quantity and pressure accumulates …

Perkins Fuel systems

Common rail fuel injection system pdf

What Is Diesel Common Rail Direct (CRD) Injection?. Common Rail System A HP pump supplies fuel, under high pressure,toa fuel header. High pressure in the header forces the fuel to each of the nozzles located in the cylinders At the proper time mechanically operated valve allows the fuel to enter the cylinder through the nozzle., HEUI [2] under various common rail pressures when the ECU gives a 2ms control pulse. It can be seen that the injection quantity and injection rate increase with the increase of the common rail pressure. What it is truly important, however, is the repeatability of the injection. Injection, injection pattern and fuel charge are not equal.

Simulation on Pressure Control of Common Rail Line in High

Common rail fuel injection system pdf

What is Common Rail? Farinia Group. Bosch consistently further develops diesel drive systems, including components for fuel injection (diesel common-rail system) and fuel supply as well as the engine and air control, turbocharging, exhaust-gas treatment, glow system, brake system and engine lubrication. While other diesel injection systems generate the fuel pressure for each injection separately, the Common Rail System separates pressure generation and injection from one another. The fuel is constantly available at the pressure required for injection. The Common Rail System is modular in design..

Common rail fuel injection system pdf


(to leakage detection system) Next rail unit Control quantity Non-return valve Cut-off quantity Injection valve Break leakages D AI l Rail unit MAN Diesel & Turbo Common Rail – Design & Field Experience 7 Fig.3 shows the hydraulic layout of the patented heavy fuel oil CR injec-tion system for the MAN 32/44CR engine. From the fuel system, the A five hole nozzle with an orifice diameter 0.113mm was used, and fuel was injected into the atmosphere at rail pressure 40 and 70MPa using a common rail injection system.

Sep 28, 2016В В· Common rail diesel uses a single fuel rail to supply fuel to the electronically controlled injectors under extremely high pressure. The engine computer controls fuel injection duration and timing to allow for higher efficiency and power. All param... Dec 22, 2013В В· The Difference Between Gas and Common Rail Fuel Injection. The greatest difference between common rail fuel injection and gasoline injection systems is the method used to ignite the fuel once it is injected into the cylinder. Gasoline engines ignite the fuel using a spark plug, while diesel engines use compression to cause ignition.

Jan 25, 2016В В· The fuel achieves its high pressure by being pressed into the injector by a plunger connected to the camshaft. One downside to this type of injector system is that the camshaft wears easily because of the increased stress of having to control fuel injection. Common Rail: 2009+ From 2009 through the present day, VW TDIs have been common rail cars. Keywords: diesel engine, diesel fuel injection system, simulation Abstract The injection process of a medium-speed diesel engine was studied in detail, using a computer program developed for this purpose. In the program, the injection pump was replaced with the measured pressure at the junction between the pump and high-pressure pipe.

Reducing particulates and optimising fuel consumption are primary reasons for adding high pressure common rail (HPCR) systems to an engine. The HPCR is used in diesel engines across our range, providing improved fuel efficiency through a more efficient combustion process. As shown in Fig. 1.2, the high-pressure fuel system for direct injection gasoline engines comprises a high-pressure pump driven directly by one of the camshafts, which supplies the pressurised fuel to a common rail mounted in the cylinder head, and high-pressure electronic fuel injectors.

2 REDUCING POLLUTING EMISSIONS. 1-21. 2. 1 COMBUSTION. 1-21. 2. 2 STANDARDS. 1-31. 2. 3 POLLUTANTS. 1-41. 3 REDUCING FUEL CONSUMPTION. 1-51. 4 INCREASING PERFORMANCE. 1-6I OBJECTIVESTABLE OF CONTENTSii DDGX200(EN) - Issue 1 of 09/2007© Delphi2. SYSTEM MAKE-UP2. 1 DESCRIPTION. 2-72. 2 COMMON RAIL HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT. 2-93. HP PUMP3. 1 TRANSFER PUMP. 3 … Common rail injection: advanced technology for diesel engines. Bosch launched the first common rail system in 1997. The system is named after the shared high-pressure reservoir (common rail) that supplies all the cylinders with fuel. With conventional diesel injection systems, the fuel pressure has to be generated individually for each injection.

Fuel delivery system Certain mechanical fuel injection systems also utilize a mechanical fuel pump, typically some early gasoline fuel injection systems. Many of them use a fuel pump essentially identical to the carbureted fuel system's. Some, however, use a vane type fuel pump mounted directly to the injection pump/fuel distributor assembly. HEUI [2] under various common rail pressures when the ECU gives a 2ms control pulse. It can be seen that the injection quantity and injection rate increase with the increase of the common rail pressure. What it is truly important, however, is the repeatability of the injection. Injection, injection pattern and fuel charge are not equal

Global Diesel Common Rail Injection System Market Research Report: by Fuel Injector (Solenoid and Piezoelectric), Vehicle Type (Passenger Car and Commercial Vehicle), and Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World)—Forecast till 2025 . Market Synopsis. The common rail injection system is a direct fuel injection system for both gasoline and diesel engine. Simulation on Pressure Control of Common Rail Line in High Pressure Fuel Injection System Wei Liua+ and Jun Wangb aFaculty of Material and Energy Guang Dong University of Technology, Guang Zhou, China bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing, China Abstract. To improving the controlled effect of common rail pressure of high pressure common rail …

Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. On diesel engines, it features a high-pressure (2,000 BAR – 29,000 PSI) fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors or pump nozzles. Feb 16, 2015 · Common Rail Diesel Fuel Systems Fuel system diagnosis Common rail diesel fuel systems operate on a closed loop basis. The system carries out a great many complex calculations to precisely control fuel quantity and injection timing.

Sep 28, 2016В В· Common rail diesel uses a single fuel rail to supply fuel to the electronically controlled injectors under extremely high pressure. The engine computer controls fuel injection duration and timing to allow for higher efficiency and power. All param... The Common Rail Sub functions ECU and sensors The sensor are responsible for measuring important physical quantities. The ECU calculates injected fuel quantity, start of injection, duration of injection, and rate of discharge curve, as well supervises the correct functioning of the injection system as a whole. COMMON RAIL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

latest fuel injection systems. emissions standards and also new system functionality, such as pre-injection. CRI (Common Rail injectors for passenger cars) and CRIN (Common Rail injectors for commercial vehicles) Bosch boosting diesel popularity. on the diesel service market. State-of-the-art diesel systems from Bosch, featuring Common Rail System A HP pump supplies fuel, under high pressure,toa fuel header. High pressure in the header forces the fuel to each of the nozzles located in the cylinders At the proper time mechanically operated valve allows the fuel to enter the cylinder through the nozzle.

Apr 23, 2018 · In the common rail system, the fuel pump charges the fuel rail at a pressure of up to 25,000 psi. But unlike indirect injection pumps, it is not involved in fuel discharge. Under the control of the onboard computer, this fuel quantity and pressure accumulates … While other diesel injection systems generate the fuel pressure for each injection separately, the Common Rail System separates pressure generation and injection from one another. The fuel is constantly available at the pressure required for injection. The Common Rail System is modular in design.

Common rail fuel injection system pdf

Sep 28, 2016В В· Common rail diesel uses a single fuel rail to supply fuel to the electronically controlled injectors under extremely high pressure. The engine computer controls fuel injection duration and timing to allow for higher efficiency and power. All param... Engine and fuel injector system designs for both petrol and diesel fuels continue to evolve to improve efficiency and performance.-Petrol engines are increasingly moving to direct injection designs.-Modern diesel engines are effectively all direct injection, with light duty almost all high pressure common rail, and heavy duty following rapidly.-